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osunpk

osunpk

Since 2008 I have served as the Precision Nutrient Management Extension Specialist for Oklahoma State University. I work in Wheat, Corn, Sorghum, Cotton, Soybean, Canola, Sweet Sorghum, Sesame, Pasture/Hay. My work focuses on providing information and tools to producers that will lead to improved nutrient management practices and increased profitability of Oklahoma production agriculture

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Managing Protein in Hard Red Winter Wheat_Repost and Update.

As I write this on May 5, 2019, the wheat is at or nearing flowering and Stillwater just received another 2.22 inches last night helping the 30 day rain total to be just shy of 9 inches. Its wet, cool, and the wheat has truly gone from rags to riches (the crop not the market). I have been regularly fielding calls on late season N and protein. I thought it would be a good time to repost my previous protein blog and add some thoughts and updates. Since the original post we have more data on nitrogen (N) timing work and one year of data from a trial we call “Protein Progression”.  First if you are interested in the timing study the full blog summarizing 2 years of work can be seen here How long can wheat wait for Nitrogen? . But the short short version was that two years in a row delaying the application of ANY nitrogen until very late in the season, past hollow stem, resulted in the best combination of yield and protein. Meaning even when wheat was yellow and stunted yields and quality recovered when N was applied at or shortly after hollowstem. This work is being continued and expanded this year. I have only shared the Protein Progression results in a few presentations, because they do not tell a consistent story. For a few years now I have been giving this advice when asked about late season nitrogen. Based upon the work I have done, this year is my 11th wheat crop in this position and I have always had at least 1 study with late N, that when nitrogen was applied at flag leaf the probability of a positive return on investment was below 50% and closer to 33%. Very seldom did I see the flag leaf applications of nitrogen provide much benefit. At the flag leaf stage when there was a positive benefit it could be yield, protein or both. When it came to anthesis (flowering) applications the probably increased to closer to a 66%-75% chance of positive impacts (Understand these percentages are drawn from my experiential learning across many environments, I have not yet run the data to determine exact values). Late applications in the right environment could increase protein by up to 2% and in the wrong environment, devastate yield due to burn. The weather needs to be cooler and humid to reduce the potential of burn and the rate of nitrogen must high enough to actually impact protein levels. Per each 1% of protein concentration of wheat grain there is 0.1 lbs N per bushel. So to increase to increase the protein content of a 60 bushel wheat crop by 1%, 6 lbs much be converted from fertilizer to protein.  To get this amount of nitrogen on the crop without burning it up I have been using UAN (28-0-0) and water at a ratio of 1:1 putting on 20 total gpa. When applied this way I have not seen burn, I do however avoid spraying when its hot, windy with low humidity.
Below are last years results of the Protein Progression study. In this I wanted to look at N application timing pre vs post, the addition of sulfur (many sources state added sulfur increases yield), flag and anthesis application. Last year we had locations near Stillwater (LCB) and Chickasha. Both yielded in the 60 bushel range which was OK but well below the five year average of both sites. At the LCB we saw a great response to N fertilizer. The more it was delayed the better off yields were. We saw a consistent negative impact of S at top-dress, which is a result I can not explain, there was no crop damage due to application. The flag leaf N application significantly increased yields, at flag leaf there was evidence of N deficiency. And the anthesis application of N had no impact on protein. At Chickasha where the none fertilized check yielded 53 bushels, the response to N was reduced. Sulfur had no impact on yield or protein, flag lead N and anthesis N increased protein by about 1%.

What did I learn from those studies, I confirmed the response to late N is not very predictable. The low protein site (LCB average protein of 11.75) did not respond to late N but the high protein location (Chickasha’s average protein content was 15%) did. I was able to see N at flag leaf did impact yield when N deficiency was noted. It also confirmed this study will be continued for multiple years. The more environments we can get data from the better we can predict response/non response.

 

Results from the 2017-18 Protein Progression Study. The graphic on the left is from Lake Carl Blackwell near Stillwater, the center table is the treatment structure and the graphic on the right includes the yield and protein results from Chickasha. Nitrogen rate (pre + top) was 120 lbs N per acre, top-dress S rate was 10 lbs. The nitrogen rate at flag leaf and anthesis was 24 lbs N per acre, while the anthesis S rate was 10 lbs.  N source was UAN for all application and S source was ammonium thiosulfate. For flagleaf and athesis applications water was used as a carrier at a 1 to 1 ratio with the fertilizer.

If you have any questions feel free to send me an email at b.arnall@okstate.edu.

Brian

Original Post Sept 27, 2017

A result of the 2016-17 winter wheat crop was a significant amount of discussion focused on protein levels. For two years running now, the protein levels have been low across the board.  Low protein brings in a challenge to sell, could impact local basis, and even more concerning is that low protein is an indicator that nitrogen was limiting during grain fill. Therefore, the field maximum yield potential was not achieved. In this blog, we talk about what protein is, what can be done to maintain a good protein level, and what can be done to increase protein if desired.

First, the definition of protein is any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms, especially as structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair, collagen, etc., and as enzymes and antibodies. Protein is also one of the many attributes that determines end-use quality and marketability of winter wheat. Sunup TV met with Dr. Carver in the baking and milling lab to create a great video discussing wheat quality impact on baking and milling.

 

We determine protein by measuring the percent of nitrogen in the grain and multiplying by a factor of 5.7. So if the grain has N % of 2.5, the protein content is 14.25.  The amount of N in the grain is affected by many variables such as weather during grain fill, yield level, and N availability during grain fill.  If weather is conducive to good grain fill and test weight is high, we will often see protein values dip. On the other hand when grain fill conditions are hot and dry and we have light test weight, wheat protein will be higher. Research has shown (Figures 1 and 2) that generally as yields increase protein levels decrease. Of course if N is limited during grain fill, the N available for the grain is reduced, and the plant is forced to get all grain N from re-immobilizing N in the leaf tissue.

Fig 1, Yield and protein averages from all of the OkState Long Term fertility trials. Data courtesy Dr. Bill Raun.

Fig 2, Grain protein and yield of from intensively managed wheat. Data Courtesy Dr. Romulo Lollato KSU.

 

Maintaining Protein, and yield.

Managing nitrogen to maintaining protein and maximizing yield comes down to making sure that N is available at critical growth periods. With wheat, the critical uptake stage is typically the time frame between hollow stem and soft dough.  The two graphs below show nitrogen uptake in wheat and barley.  If the same graph was made for dual purpose wheat, the upward swing would start sooner but would follow the same general trend.

Fig 3, Nutrient Uptake of Wheat found in “Agricultural and Biological Sciences » “Crop Production”, ISBN 978-953-51-1174-0, Chapter 5 By Juan Hirzel and Pablo Undurraga DOI: 10.5772/56095″

Fig 4, Nitrogen uptake in Barley at two nitrogen rates. http://apps.cdfa.ca.gov/frep/docs/N_Barley.html

When it comes to making sure N is available during this time of peak need, the only way we can do that is apply just before it is needed.  This means split application.  While putting all the nitrogen out pre-plant as anhydrous ammonia is the cheapest method, it is also the method that provides the lowest nitrogen use efficiency and is most likely to show deficiencies late in the season. One of the challenges with 100% preplant N application is that years with good yield potential coincide with years with good/high high rainfall, which means more nitrogen loss.  Some interesting results from studies implemented in the 2016-17 cropping season showed the importance of nitrogen application timing. The study is determining how long nitrogen application can be delayed after the N-Rich strip becomes visible (https://osunpk.com/2013/09/19/nitrogen-rich-strips/). For the study, 90 lbs of N was applied on one of the treatments at planting When that plot became visibly greener or bigger than the rest, N application was triggered. After the 0 DAVD (Days after visual difference where the day had growing degree days >0), another treatment was applied every 7 growing days for 63 growing days.  Each plot, excluding the zero N check, received 90 lbs as NH4NO3 (we use this to take the variable of volatilization out of the data). In all cases, 90 lbs applied in late January to early February was better than 90 lbs pre-plant. Keep in mind there was 0 N applied at planting for each DAVD application timing; yet, we still hit 50-80 bushel wheat with nothing but in-season N. This is the result of supplying the N when the plant needs it. I should add this is just one year of data, and every year is different. The study is being replicated again this year and will be highlighted at the Lahoma field day.

 

Fig 5, Results from the 2016-2017 delayed nitrogen study led by Mr. Joao Bigato Souza. The trials consisted of a preplant plot, unfertilized check plot, and then a series treatments in which N application was based on days from a visual difference between the pre-plant and check. All fertilized plots received 90 lbs N as NH4NO3. DAVD is days after visual difference. (Error in bottom left graph, the last date should be March 27 not April 4)

For dual-purpose wheat, the total amount of N expected for the forage production needs to be applied pre-plant. Oklahoma State recommends 30 lbs N for every 1,000 lbs of forage expected For grain-only wheat, there needs to be only 20 to 40 lbs of N available to the crop when planted (this includes residual N). The remaining N should be applied at green up or early spring.  The only way to ensure that N is applied when the crop needs it is to utilize the N-Rich Strip method. Having a N-Rich strip in your field lets you know when the wheat needs more nitrogen and when it does not.

Fig 6. Nitrogen Rich Strip (N-Rich) showing up in a No-till wheat field.

Two years testing the N-Rich Strip and Sensor based nitrogen rate calculator (SBNRC) from the Texas boarder to the Kansas boarder showed that the SBNRC on average reduced N but maintained yield and protein when compared to standard farmer practice (Table 1).

Table 1. Results from testing the Nitrogen Rick Strip and Sensor Based Calculator Method across Oklahoma wheat fields.

Increasing Protein

Some producers may plan to market high protein for a premium if available.  Fortunately, there are opportunities to increase protein via management. While most of the strategies for increasing protein happen later in the growing season, some of the early decisions can be a significant contributing factor. Variety selection and keeping the plant healthy and free of competition (i.e., pest management) throughout the growing season are going to increase the opportunity to produce high protein wheat.  After that, the equation goes back to Figures 3 and 4 and making sure the crop has access to nitrogen during peak periods, including grain fill.  If you will note, the bottom two graphs of Figure 5 both show significant increases in protein on the later applications. For both locations, this was when N (90 lbs N ac-1) was applied after full flag leaf emergence.  There has been a significant amount of work at OSU looking at late application of N stretching back into the 1990s http://nue.okstate.edu/Index_Publications/Foliar_N_Curt.pdf. The focus has been looking at timing, source, and rate. The take home of decades of work can be summarized as such.  Yes, protein can be increased with late season application, but not always. Applying N at or after flowering has a significantly greater probability of increasing protein than a application at flag-leaf. Source of N has had little impact if managed properly (UAN, 28-0-0, has to be watered down so that it does not burn the plant). The rate of N does matter quite a bit. Most of the work suggests that for every pound of N applied, the percent grain protein could increase by .05%. So to increase protein from a 12.5% to 13.5%, it would require approximately 20 lbs of N per acre.  My work has shown the same trend that a 20 lbs application at post-flowering had more consistent increases in protein than lower rates at the same time or similar rates applied at flag leaf.

This wheat season we are looking to improve our knowledge of management on protein content through multiple studies by continuing the evaluation of varieties and management practices.

If you have any questions for comments please feel free to contact me.
Brian A.
B.arnall@okstate.edu

Managing Protein in Hard Red Winter Wheat.

A result of the 2016-17 winter wheat crop was a significant amount of discussion focused on protein levels. For two years running now, the protein levels have been low across the board.  Low protein brings in a challenge to sell, could impact local basis, and even more concerning is that low protein is an indicator that nitrogen was limiting during grain fill. Therefore, the field maximum yield potential was not achieved. In this blog, we talk about what protein is, what can be done to maintain a good protein level, and what can be done to increase protein if desired.

First, the definition of protein is any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms, especially as structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair, collagen, etc., and as enzymes and antibodies. Protein is also one of the many attributes that determines end-use quality and marketability of winter wheat. Sunup TV met with Dr. Carver in the baking and milling lab to create a great video discussing wheat quality impact on baking and milling.

 

We determine protein by measuring the percent of nitrogen in the grain and multiplying by a factor of 5.7. So if the grain has N % of 2.5, the protein content is 14.25.  The amount of N in the grain is affected by many variables such as weather during grain fill, yield level, and N availability during grain fill.  If weather is conducive to good grain fill and test weight is high, we will often see protein values dip. On the other hand when grain fill conditions are hot and dry and we have light test weight, wheat protein will be higher. Research has shown (Figures 1 and 2) that generally as yields increase protein levels decrease. Of course if N is limited during grain fill, the N available for the grain is reduced, and the plant is forced to get all grain N from re-immobilizing N in the leaf tissue.

Fig 1, Yield and protein averages from all of the OkState Long Term fertility trials. Data courtesy Dr. Bill Raun.

Fig 2, Grain protein and yield of from intensively managed wheat. Data Courtesy Dr. Romulo Lollato KSU.

 

Maintaining Protein, and yield.

Managing nitrogen to maintaining protein and maximizing yield comes down to making sure that N is available at critical growth periods. With wheat, the critical uptake stage is typically the time frame between hollow stem and soft dough.  The two graphs below show nitrogen uptake in wheat and barley.  If the same graph was made for dual purpose wheat, the upward swing would start sooner but would follow the same general trend.

Fig 3, Nutrient Uptake of Wheat found in “Agricultural and Biological Sciences » “Crop Production”, ISBN 978-953-51-1174-0, Chapter 5 By Juan Hirzel and Pablo Undurraga DOI: 10.5772/56095″

Fig 4, Nitrogen uptake in Barley at two nitrogen rates. http://apps.cdfa.ca.gov/frep/docs/N_Barley.html

When it comes to making sure N is available during this time of peak need, the only way we can do that is apply just before it is needed.  This means split application.  While putting all the nitrogen out pre-plant as anhydrous ammonia is the cheapest method, it is also the method that provides the lowest nitrogen use efficiency and is most likely to show deficiencies late in the season. One of the challenges with 100% preplant N application is that years with good yield potential coincide with years with good/high high rainfall, which means more nitrogen loss.  Some interesting results from studies implemented in the 2016-17 cropping season showed the importance of nitrogen application timing. The study is determining how long nitrogen application can be delayed after the N-Rich strip becomes visible (https://osunpk.com/2013/09/19/nitrogen-rich-strips/). For the study, 90 lbs of N was applied on one of the treatments at planting When that plot became visibly greener or bigger than the rest, N application was triggered. After the 0 DAVD (Days after visual difference where the day had growing degree days >0), another treatment was applied every 7 growing days for 63 growing days.  Each plot, excluding the zero N check, received 90 lbs as NH4NO3 (we use this to take the variable of volatilization out of the data). In all cases, 90 lbs applied in late January to early February was better than 90 lbs pre-plant. Keep in mind there was 0 N applied at planting for each DAVD application timing; yet, we still hit 50-80 bushel wheat with nothing but in-season N. This is the result of supplying the N when the plant needs it. I should add this is just one year of data, and every year is different. The study is being replicated again this year and will be highlighted at the Lahoma field day.

 

Fig 5, Results from the 2016-2017 delayed nitrogen study led by Mr. Joao Bigato Souza. The trials consisted of a preplant plot, unfertilized check plot, and then a series treatments in which N application was based on days from a visual difference between the pre-plant and check. All fertilized plots received 90 lbs N as NH4NO3. DAVD is days after visual difference. (Error in bottom left graph, the last date should be March 27 not April 4)

For dual-purpose wheat, the total amount of N expected for the forage production needs to be applied pre-plant. Oklahoma State recommends 30 lbs N for every 1,000 lbs of forage expected For grain-only wheat, there needs to be only 20 to 40 lbs of N available to the crop when planted (this includes residual N). The remaining N should be applied at green up or early spring.  The only way to ensure that N is applied when the crop needs it is to utilize the N-Rich Strip method. Having a N-Rich strip in your field lets you know when the wheat needs more nitrogen and when it does not.

Fig 6. Nitrogen Rich Strip (N-Rich) showing up in a No-till wheat field.

Two years testing the N-Rich Strip and Sensor based nitrogen rate calculator (SBNRC) from the Texas boarder to the Kansas boarder showed that the SBNRC on average reduced N but maintained yield and protein when compared to standard farmer practice (Table 1).

Table 1. Results from testing the Nitrogen Rick Strip and Sensor Based Calculator Method across Oklahoma wheat fields.

Increasing Protein

Some producers may plan to market high protein for a premium if available.  Fortunately, there are opportunities to increase protein via management. While most of the strategies for increasing protein happen later in the growing season, some of the early decisions can be a significant contributing factor. Variety selection and keeping the plant healthy and free of competition (i.e., pest management) throughout the growing season are going to increase the opportunity to produce high protein wheat.  After that, the equation goes back to Figures 3 and 4 and making sure the crop has access to nitrogen during peak periods, including grain fill.  If you will note, the bottom two graphs of Figure 5 both show significant increases in protein on the later applications. For both locations, this was when N (90 lbs N ac-1) was applied after full flag leaf emergence.  There has been a significant amount of work at OSU looking at late application of N stretching back into the 1990s http://nue.okstate.edu/Index_Publications/Foliar_N_Curt.pdf. The focus has been looking at timing, source, and rate. The take home of decades of work can be summarized as such.  Yes, protein can be increased with late season application, but not always. Applying N at or after flowering has a significantly greater probability of increasing protein than a application at flag-leaf. Source of N has had little impact if managed properly (UAN, 28-0-0, has to be watered down so that it does not burn the plant). The rate of N does matter quite a bit. Most of the work suggests that for every pound of N applied, the percent grain protein could increase by .05%. So to increase protein from a 12.5% to 13.5%, it would require approximately 20 lbs of N per acre.  My work has shown the same trend that a 20 lbs application at post-flowering had more consistent increases in protein than lower rates at the same time or similar rates applied at flag leaf.

This wheat season we are looking to improve our knowledge of management on protein content through multiple studies by continuing the evaluation of varieties and management practices.

If you have any questions for comments please feel free to contact me.
Brian A.
B.arnall@okstate.edu

2014 Harvest has wrapped up.

The last of the Precision Nutrient Management winter crop harvest was wrapped up in Chickasha June 25.  Across the trial locations (Lahoma, Perkins, Chickasha, and Stillwater) the yields came in across the board in the high teens low twenties, bushel per acre.  For most of the trials there was very little treatment difference, often the check ( Zero N) was not far from the fertilized plots.  At this time the students are processing the grain.  Some will be sent to a NIR Spectrophotometer for protein analysis the rest will be ground and analyzed for nitrogen and mineral content.  The response to fertilizer was so low this year many of my trial areas have a double crop sorghum growing, in hopes to take advantage of the recent rains and harvest the residual nutrients.  While I am processing the data and the students are running the samples I thought I would share a few of the images from the 2014 harvest.  I will post results on the npk.okstate.edu as the become available and share the information on this blog.   The best way to learn when results are posted are to follow me on Twitter @OSU_NPK or subscribe to our Extension news list serve (send me an email at b.arnall@okstate.edu to be added to the listserv).

This harvest was spent watching the radar and going where the weather allowed.

This harvest was spent watching the radar and going where the weather allowed.

Even a new machine needs a few in field "Modifications"

Even a new machine needs a few in field “Modifications”

In this you can see the impact of fertility on freeze damage.  The dark plots survived the freeze, the light did not and were full of smaller tiller heads.  In the end no major yield differences.

In this you can see the impact of fertility on freeze damage. The dark plots survived the freeze, the light did not and were full of smaller tiller heads. In the end no major yield differences.

The view from the driver seat of the Massey 8XP, with the Harvest Master on the right.

The view from the driver seat of the Massey 8XP, with the Harvest Master on the right.

Even with a 5 ft header residue management is important.

Even with a 5 ft header residue management is important.

While all plots are cut with the 8XP, for cleanup we borrowed a few Gleaners when available.

While all plots are cut with the 8XP, for cleanup we borrowed a few Gleaners when available. I liked to say we started with Young and Cute and finished with Mature and Efficient.

To beat the rains all of us at OSU ran late nights and weekends.

To beat the rains all of us at OSU ran late nights and weekends.

When possible we like to let students get as much experience as possible.  In this a Brazilian intern Luciano is learning to run the 8XP.

When possible we like to let students get as much experience as possible. In this a Brazilian intern Luciano is learning to run the 8XP.