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Since 2008 I have served as the Precision Nutrient Management Extension Specialist for Oklahoma State University. I work in Wheat, Corn, Sorghum, Cotton, Soybean, Canola, Sweet Sorghum, Sesame, Pasture/Hay. My work focuses on providing information and tools to producers that will lead to improved nutrient management practices and increased profitability of Oklahoma production agriculture

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Using the GreenSeeker after Freeze Damage

After discussions with producers in southern Kansas I felt the need to bring back this past blog.  It seems that much of (not all) the early planted wheat lost a significant amount of biomass during the winter and the N-Rich Strip GreenSeeker approach is producing what looks to be low yield potentials and N-Rate recommendations.  This should be treated much like we do grazed wheat and the planting date should be adjusted, see below.  It is also important to note that in the past year a new wheat calculator was added to the NUE Site.  http://nue.okstate.edu/SBNRC/mesonet.php. Number 1 is the original OSU SBNRC but the #2 is calculator produced by a KSU/OSU cooperative project.  This is the SBNRC I recommend for use in Kansas and much of the norther tier of counties in OK.

Original Blog on Freeze Damage and the GreenSeeker.

Dr. Jeff Edwards “OSUWheat” wrote about winter wheat freeze injury in a receive blog on World of Wheat, http://osuwheat.com/2013/12/19/freeze-injury/.  As Dr. Edwards notes injury at this stage rarely impact yield, therefore the fertility requirements of the crop has not significantly changed.  What will be impacted is how the N-Rich Strip and GreenSeeker™ sensor will be used.  This not suggesting abandoning the technology in fact time has shown it can be just as accurate after tissue damage.   It should be noted GreenSeeker™ NDVI readings should not be collected on a field that has recently been damaged.

A producer using the N-Rich Strip, GreenSeeker™, Sensor Based N-Rate Calculator approach on a field with freeze damage will need to consider a few points.  First there need to be a recovery period after significant tissue damage; this may be one to two weeks of good growth.   Sense areas that have had the same degree of damage as elevation and landscape position often impacts the level of damage.  It would be misleading to sense a area in the N-Rich strip that was not significantly damaged but an area in the Farmer Practice that took a great deal of tissue loss.

Finally we must consider how the SBNRC, available online at http://nue.okstate.edu/SBNRC/mesonet.php, works.  The calculator uses NDVI to estimate wheat biomass, which is directly related to grain yield.  This predicted grain yield is then used to calculate nitrogen (N) rate.  So if biomass is reduced, yield potential is reduced and N rate reduced.  The same issue is seen in dual purpose whet production.  So the approach that I recommend for the dual purpose guys is the same that I will recommend for those who experienced significant freeze damage.  This should not be used for wheat with just minimal tip burn.

To account for the loss of biomass, but not yield, planting date needs to be adjusted to “trick” the calculator into thinking the crop is younger and has greater potential.   Planting date should be move forward 7 or 14 days dependent  For example the first screen shot shows what the SBNRC would recommend using the real planting date.  In this case the potential yield is significantly underestimated.

The second and third screen shots show the impact of moving the planting date forward by 7 and 14 days respectively.  Note the increase in yield potential, which is the agronomically correct potential for field considering soil and plant condition, and increase in recommended N-rate recommendation.  Adjust the planting date, within the 7 to 14 day window, so that the yield potential YPN is at a level suitable to the field the yield condition and environment.  The number of days adjusted is related to the size and amount of loss.  The larger the wheat and or greater the biomass loss the further forward the planting date should be moved.  In the example below YPN goes from 37 bu ac on the true planting date to 45 bu ac with a 14 day correction.  The N-rate changes from 31 lbs to 38 lbs, this change may not be as much as you might expect.  That is because YP0, yield without additional N, also increases from 26 to 32 bushel.

freeze Zero day moveImage 1. Planting date 9/1/2013.  YPN 37 bu ac-1 and N-Rec 31 lbs ac-1.

Freeze 7 day moveImage 2. Planting date 9/8/2013.  YPN 40 bu ac-1 and N-Rec 34 lbs ac-1.

Freeze 14 day moveImage 3. Planting date 9/15/2013.  YPN 45 bu ac-1 and N-Rec 38 lbs ac-1.

This adjustment is only to be made when tissue has been lost or removed, not when you disagree with the yield potential.  If you have any questions about N-Rich Strips, the GreenSeeker™, or the online SBNRC please feel free to contact me at b.arnall@okstate.edu or 405.744.1722.

The Sufficiency versus Replacement tipping point.

Being educated in the realm of Soil Fertility at Oklahoma State University by the likes of Dr Gordon Johnson and Dr. Bill Raun, Brays Nutrient Mobility Concept and Mitscherlich’s Percent Sufficiency Concept are ingrained in my psyche. In class the concept of Build and Maintain for phosphorus fertilizer management was just briefly visited and not discussed as a viable option.  For anyone in the corn belt, and some Okies, reading this that may seem unusual.  But when I was in school on average in Oklahoma there was about 100-200 K acres of 100 120 bpa (bushel per acre) corn, 300-400 K acres of 40-50 bpa sorghum, and over 5 million acres of 20-30 bpa wheat.  In a state with those average yields, replacing P removed by the crop was not a major concern.

But times are changing.  There is more corn and soybean planted and the achievable yields of all crop are increasing.  While the average winter wheat producer should not be worried about replacement rates of P there is a growing group of producers that should.  This blog will discuss the scenarios in which sufficiency rates are best and those in which replacement should be considered. The OSU factsheet PSS-2266 goes in-depth on each of these methods.

Applying P based on sufficiency will increase soil test P levels in a low yielding environment.  For example on a 20 bpa wheat field that starts out with a soil test P level of 0. Using the sufficiency recommendation each year the soil test value will reach 20 ppm (40 STP) in 20 years. A 30 bpa field would take 30 years.  Yes that is a long time but the soil test value is increasing a little each year. The point of 20 ppm is important because at that level the crop is 95% sufficient, meaning if no P is added the crop will only reach 95% of the fields yield potential.

Using a mass balance approach we can determine at what point does the crop remove more than we can supply with in or near furrow starter fertilizer.  Table 1 shows the values I am using for the discussion.  The first column is just the average amount of P removed per bushel of grain, most of our grains fall in the .4 to .5 lbs P per bushel range.  The second column is the soil test value at which P level is said to be at 90% sufficient. The reason this column is included is that the P2O5 reccomendation for this P level fits into the starter rate for all crops. The low high starter rates are the typical range of P2O5 that is delivered within the safe range (N based) and what I see as the common rates.  These values may be above or below what you use. 

Values used to create Table 2. Phosphorus per bushel of grain. Mehlich 3 soil test value (ppm) at which crop is determined to be 90% sufficient, typical range of P2O5 applied with starter fertilizers, recommended P2O5 rate when soil test P is at 90% sufficiency.

Table 1. Values used to create Table 2. Phosphorus per bushel of grain. Mehlich 3 soil test value (ppm) at which crop is determined to be 90% sufficient, typical range of P2O5 applied with starter fertilizers, recommended P2O5 rate when soil test P is at 90% sufficiency.

Table 2 is pretty simple but it is the center point of this article.  The one caveat I need to add is this assumes strip till or 2*2 / 3*2 is not being used. Table 2 is using the starter range and removal value to determine the yield level the starter can support. The first take on this table may provide some hint on why in a state with 5 million acres of wheat averaging 36 BPA the state soil fertility specialist didn’t focus on replacement rates.  In fact for most for most the the wheat ground P application is higher than removal and P levels are slowly increasing. The big take home from this table should be is my yield level outside this window? If so do not immediately go out in crease your P rates but do take a close look at your system as a whole.  Take a close look at your cropping system, not just one seasons but look at a three or four year cycle.  Add up P applied and P removed, are you positive or negative net balance?  If you are negative take a long hard look at your soil test over time.  Some soils can supply a large amount of P even if you are removing more than you apply.  Other soils will be rapidly drawn down.  Regualr soil testing allows for producers to keep an eye on these values. 

Yield level (bushels per acre) at which P removal is equal to P added in starter fertilizer application.

Table 2. Yield level (bushels per acre) at which P removal is equal to P added in starter fertilizer application.

In the end even if the production warrants the use of replacement rates, the current market may not. For more on that read https://osunpk.com/2016/08/27/now-may-not-be-the-time-for-replacement/.

Speaking of market currently both soybeans and cotton are getting a lot of attention due to how the economics is penciling out. Soybean is a “heavy” P crop pulls .8 lbs per bpa while cotton removes 13 lbs per bales. Both of these crops are salt sensitive and the rate of inforrow is typically quite low providing only about 6 lbs when on 30″ rows.  If you are growing beans or cotton make sure you account for their removal when you talley up your system. 

 Below is a table that I wanted to add, well because I like it. This table illustrates that buildup, and drawdown, rate is heavily impacted by existing soil test value.  In short it takes a lot more fertilizer P to raise soil test p levels in a very low P testing field than it does when soil test P is closer to optimum, 19 lbs per 1 lb at STP of 10 and 5 lbs per lb when STP is 65.  The exact rate changes by soil type and the same holds true to drawn down via crop removal. 

Amount of P2O5 above crop removal needed to increase soil test phosphorous based upon intital soil test results. Adapted From http://www.spectrumanalytic.com/support/library/ff/Soil_test_P_and_K_buildup_and_drawdown.htm "Drawdown of Soil Test Phosphorus and Potassium Levels by Alfalfa, K.L. Wells & J.E. Dollarhide, Univ. of Kentucky, Soil Science News & Views, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2000"

Amount of P2O5 above crop removal needed to increase soil test phosphorous based upon initial soil test results.
Adapted From http://www.spectrumanalytic.com/support/library/ff/Soil_test_P_and_K_buildup_and_drawdown.htm “Drawdown of Soil Test Phosphorus and Potassium Levels by Alfalfa, K.L. Wells & J.E. Dollarhide, Univ. of Kentucky, Soil Science News & Views, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2000”

 Any questions or comments? Feel free to contact me at b.arnall@okstate.edu


Planting Wheat After Anhydrous

Every year in August and early September I get the question “How soon after applying NH3 can I sow wheat?”. Typically my answer has been a conservative one which takes into account rate, depth, spacing and soil moisture to end up with a range of 3 days to a week.  The concern with anhydrous application is that when NH3 is placed in the soil it immediately turns into NH4 by striping H from H2O. This action releases OH into the soil in increases pH, depending on rate pH can reach 10.0 this hike in soil pH is a short term as the system disperrses and NH4 immediately begins the conversion to NO3 release H and driving down pH.  The high pH in itself is not the problem but if the pH is still high and  soil dries the OH will strip H from NH4 and NH3 is formed.  The ammonia gas (NH3) is what can easily damage the sensitive seedling.

After fielding several calls in one day I wanted to dig a bit deeper and see what the science and specialist say. I was hoping for a nice consensus, haven’t found that yet.  Here are some snip-its.


From Kansas State University
Dr. Dave Mengel
As a general rule, wait about 7 to 10 days between the anhydrous ammonia application and wheat planting. The higher the nitrogen rates and the wider the spacing (creating a higher concentration of ammonia in the band), the longer period of time you should wait. Also, in dry soils you may need to wait longer.

Canada Grains Council’s Complete Guide to Wheat Management Link
In the past, it was recommended that seeding be delayed for two days after banding anhydrous ammonia (NH3). However, in many soils as long as the NH3 is placed 5- 7.5 cm ( 2-3 inches) away from the seed, NH3 can be applied at the time of seeding. Seed damage from NH3 is most likely to occur under dry conditions on sandy soils when there is insufficient separation from the seed. Placement of fertilizer nitrogen should be deeper in sandy soils than in loams or heavy textured soils. Narrow band spacing 25 to 30 cm (10-12 in) is better than wider band spacing particularly under low moisture conditions.

From University on Minnesota
Peer reviewed publication
Field experiments were conducted 1979-1981 on a Wheatville loam  soil. The treatments consisted of three rates of N as anhydrous ammonia (45, 90, and 135 kg/ha) in 1979 and four rates of N (0, 45, 90, and 135 kg/ ha) in 1980-1981 at three depths (8,16, and 24 cm) in all combinations. Spring wheat and barley were then seeded at three different times. Seedling stand counts, grain yield, and protein were used to determine the effect of the treatments. Seedling stands were reduced in some cases, but no reduction in grain yield or protein was obtained due to the reduction in stand. The most important factor in spring anhydrous application was the depth of application, which caused greater moisture loss and seedbed disruption at the 24-cm application depth.
Spring wheat and barley response to N rates was similar at all depths of application (no significant interaction between N rate and application depth). The results indicate that anhydrous ammonia can be applied safely at planting time on spring wheat and barley, if applied at the 8 to 16 cm depth and at N rates currently used in the northern Great Plains.

From University on Minnesota (referring to corn) link
The only risk of planting soon after AA application is if seeds fall within the ammonia retention zone. To avoid seedling injury separation in time or space can be important. Under ideal soil moisture conditions and proper application depth of a typical agronomic rate normally there is little risk of seedling injury even if planted on top of the application zone right after AA application. That said, this can be risky and I would not recommend planting on top of the AA row. If you have RTK guidance it is very easy to apply AA between the future corn rows. If RTK guidance is not an option, I would recommend applying AA on an angle to the direction of planting to minimize the potential for planting on top of the AA band. If application conditions are less than ideal and you have no RTK guidance to ensure a safe distance from the AA band, then waiting 3 to 5 days before planting is typically enough time to reduce the risk of seedling injury.

From University on Wisconsin (referring to corn) Link
The depth of NH3 placement was the greatest factor in determined potential seedling damage.  The time after application had little impact.

Iowa State University (referring to corn)
by Regis Voss, extension agronomist, Department of Agronomy
The wet fall and spring will cause anhydrous ammonia application and corn planting date to be close. This will lead to the oft asked question, “How long do I have to wait to plant corn after ammonia application?” If there is a soil separation between the ammonia zone and the seed, planting can be done the same day the ammonia is applied. If the seed is to be placed in the ammonia zone, the longer the waiting period the less potential for root injury. There is no magic number of days to wait.

WAKO NH3 applicator used for in-season application.

WAKO NH3 applicator used for in-season application.

My take home from several hours of reading research articles and factsheets was my favorite answer IT DEPENDS.  I believe Regis Voss with ISU had it right, there is no magic number. The important aspects for determining time will be 1) Soil Moisture 2) N rate 3) Depth and 4) shank spacing. From the reading I think there may be some general rules of thumb.
On the conservative side with good soil moisture, NH3 placed at 6″ deep, rate below 80 lbs and spacing of about 15″ the next day should be ok.  As any one of these factors change (drier soil, higher rates, shallower application, wider rows) the more time should be added to reduce risk.  One thing to consider is field variability. While the field on average may have great moisture there could be dry spots, while on average you are 6″ deep with the NH3 there are areas the rig is bound to rise up and go shallow.  So there is always a chance for hot spots. All of that said I could not find any research on this topic for winter wheat in the southern Great Plains much less Oklahoma.  I will always tend to the safe side and suggest if possible to delay sowing a few days after applying anhydrous. However if time is critical proceed with caution.

Looks like I can add one more project to my list and I need to find some open ground and do some “Experimenting”.

Happy Sowing All!


Now may not be the time for Replacement

For phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizer management there are three primary schools of thought when it comes to rate recommendations. The three approaches are Build-up, Maintenance/Replacement, and Sufficiency. There is a time and place for each one of the methods however the current markets are making the decision for the 2016-16 winter wheat crop a very easy one. The OSU factsheet PSS-2266 goes in-depth on each of these methods. For the rest of the blog I will use P in the conversation but in many scenarios K should/could be treated the same.

Build-up is when soil test is below a significant amount of fertilizer, about 7.5 lbs P2O5 per 1 ppm increase, is added so that soil test values increase.  This method is only suggested when grain price is high and fertilizer is relatively cheap.  Given the market, this is a no go.  The two most commonly used methods of recommendation are Replacement and Sufficiency. In the replacement approach if the soil is at or below optimum P2O5 rate it based upon replacing what the crop will remove. The sufficiency approach uses response curves to determine the rate of P that will maximize yield. These two values are typically quite different.  A good way you boil the two down is that replacement feeds the soil and sufficiency feeds the plant.

Oklahoma State Universities Soil, Water, and Forage Analytical Lab (SWFAL) provides recommendations utilizing sufficiency only while many private labs and consultants use replacement or a blended approach.  Some of this is due to region.  Throughout the corn belt many lease agreement contain clauses that the soil test values should not decrease otherwise the renter pays for replacement after the lease is over. For the corn belt both corn and soybean can be expected to remove 80 to 100 pounds of P per year.  Conversely the Oklahoma state average wheat crop removes 17 lbs P a year.  In areas where wheat yields are below 40 bushel per acre (bpa) using the sufficiency approach for P recs can increase soil test P over time.

This conceptual soil test response curve is divided into categories that correspond with below opti-mum, optimum and above optimum soil test values. The critical level is the soil test level, below which a crop response to a nutrient application may be expected, and above which no crop response is expected. At very high soil test levels crop yield may decrease. *Rutgers Cooperative Extension Service FS719

This conceptual soil test response curve is divided into categories that correspond with below opti-mum, optimum and above optimum soil test values. The critical level is the soil test level, below which a crop response to a nutrient application may be expected, and above which no crop response is expected. At very high soil test levels crop yield may decrease.
*Rutgers Cooperative Extension Service FS719

Back to subject of this blog, consultants, agronomist, and producers need to take a good look at the way P recs are being made this year.  Profitability and staying in the black is the number 1, 2, and 3 topic being discussed right now.  The simple fact is there is no economic benefit to apply rate above crop need, regardless of yield level. The figures above demonstrate both the yield response to fertilizer based upon soil test. At the point of Critical level crop response / increase in yield is zero. What should also be understood is that in the replacement approach P fertilizer is still added even when soil test is in Optimum level.  This also referred to as maintenance, or maintaining the current level of fertility by replacing removal. If your program is a replacement program this is not a recommendation to drop it completely. Over a period of time of high removal soil test P levels can and will be drawn down. But one year or even two years of fertilizing 100 bpa wheat based on sufficiency will not drop soil test levels. On average soils contain between 400 and 6000 pounds of total phosphorus which in the soil in three over arching forms plant available, labile, and fixed. Plant available is well plant available and fixed is non plant available.  The labile form is intermediate form of P.  When P is labile it can be easily converted to plant available or fixed. When a plant takes up P the system will convert labile P into available P. When we apply P fertilizer the greatest majority of was is applied makes it to the labile and fixed forms in a relatively short period of time.  For more in-depth information on P in the soil you can visit the SOIL 4234 Soil Fertility course and watch recorded lectures Fall 2015 10 26-30 Link .

How to tell if your P recs have a replacement factor, not including calling your agronomist. First replacement recs are based on yield goal, so if you change your yield goal your rate will change.  The other and easier way is to compare your rates to the table below.  Most of the regional Land Grant Universities have very similar sufficiency recs for wheat.  Another aspect of the sufficiency approach is the percent sufficiency value itself.  The sufficiency can provide one more layer in the decision making process for those who are near the critical or 100% level.  Response and likelihood of response to P is not equal. At the lowest levels the likelihood of response is very high and the yield increase per unit of fertilizer is the greatest. As soil test values near critical (32.5 ppm or 65 STP) the likelihood of response and amount of yield increase due to fertilizer P decreases significantly.  At a STP of 10 the crop will only produce 70% of its environmental potential if P is not added while at a STP of 40 the crop will make 90% of its potential.  The combination of % sufficiency and yield goal can be used to determine economic value of added P.

*Oklahoma State University Soil Test Interpretations. PSS-2225 *Mehlich 3 and Bray P are similar *PPM (parts per million) is used by most labs *STP (soil test P) is a conversion used by some Universities. Equivalent to pounds per acre. * for a 0-6” in soil sample PPM * 2 = STP.

*From Oklahoma State University Soil Test Interpretations. Fact Sheet PSS-2225
*Based on Mehlich 3
*PPM (parts per million) is used by most labs
*STP (soil test P) is a conversion used by some Universities. Equivalent to pounds per acre.
* for a 0-6” in soil sample PPM * 2 = STP.

This data is available from OSU in multiple forms from the Factsheet PSS-2225, the SWFAL website, Pete Sheets quick cards, and the Field Guide App.


This year with margins tight soil testing is more important than ever before.  Knowing the likelihood of response and appropriate amount of fertilizer to apply will be critical maximizing the return on fertilizer invest while maximizing the quality and amount of grain we can produce.  Visit with your consultant or agronomist to discuss what the best approach is for your operation. Lets ride this market out, get the most out of every input and come out of this down cycle strong.

Feel free to contact me with any questions you may have.


2015-16 Wheat Crop Nitrogen Review

From trials to phone calls (and text messages, and tweets, and ect. ect) I have gathered a fairly good picture of this years winter wheat nitrogen story.  And as normal, nothing was normal.  Overall I seen/heard three distinct trends 1) Did not take much to make a lot 2) took a ton to make a lot 3) saw a response (N-rich strip or cow-pow) but fertilizer never kicked in. Covers most of the options, doesn’t it.


The N-rich strips really came out over all very good this year.  N-Rich Strip Blog. On average many of those using the N-Rich Strip and SBNRC (SBNRC Blog) producers have been getting in the neighborhood of 1.0-1.3 lbs of N applied per bushel produced.  This year the numbers ran from 0.66 to 2.3 lbs of N per bushel.  In both extremes I believe it can be explained via the field history and the N-Cycle.


Nitrogen Cycle Pete’s Sheet

In at least two fields, documented with calibrated yield monitors, the N-Rich Strip and SBNRC lead to massive yields on limited N. One quarter of IBA bumped 86 bpa average on 47 lbs of N while a second quarter, also IBA, managed 94 bpa average on about 52 units of N. We are currently running grain samples from these fields to look protein levels.

The other side of the boat were those with N-Rich strip calling for +2.0 lbs N per bushel.  I had received notes from producers without N-rich strips saying that they could predict yield based on the amount of N applied and it was a 2 to 1 ratio.  Not always but many of these high N demand fields where wheat following a summer or double crop or corn or sorghum. While many of the low N demand fields were wheat after wheat or wheat after canola. In a rotational study that had been first implemented in the 2014-15 crop year I saw big differences due to previous crop.  The picture below was taken in early March.  The straw residue in wheat after wheat had just sucked up the nitrogen.  While it was evident the residue from the canola broke down at a much more rapid pace releasing any and all residual nutrients early.


The yield differences were striking. The canola rotation benefited the un-fertilized plots by 22 bpa and even with 90 lbs of N applied having canola in the rotation increased yields by 12 bpa.  We are looking and grain quality and residual soil sample now. I am sure there will be a more indepth blog to follow.

Canola Wheat Rotation study year two yield average. yields average across previous years N-rates.

Canola Wheat Rotation study year two yield average. yields average across previous years N-rates.

Another BIG story from the 2015-16 wheat crop was the lack of benefit from any N applied pre-plant. It really took top-dress N this year to make a crop.  Due to our wet early fall and prolong cold winter N applied pre was either lost or tied up late.  Work by Dr. Ruans Soil Fertility Program really documented the lack luster pre-plant N effect. The figure below shows 4 location of a rate by timing student.  The number at the bottom of each graph is a rate by time (30/0 means 30 lbs Pre-0 lbs Top, 60/30 means 60 lbs Pre-30 lbs Top).  At every single location 0/60 beat 60/0. Top-dress N was better than Pre-plant N.


Figure 1. Work from Ethan Driver and Dr. Bill Raun. Study looked at rate and timing of N fertilization in wheat. Treatments are ordered by total N applied.

The last observation was lack of response from applied N even though the crop was deficient.  Seen this in both the NE and NW corners.  I would hazard with most of the circumstance it was due to a tie up of applied N by the previous crops residue.  The length at which the winter stretched into spring residue break down was also delayed.

Take Home 

Here it is folks APPLY NITROGEN RICH STRIPS.  Just do it, 18 years of research preformed in Oklahoma on winter wheat says it works. Hold off on heavy pre-plant N even if anhydrous is cheap.  It does matter how cheap it is if it doesn’t make it to the crop.  Will we see another year like 2015-16, do not know and not willing to place money on either side. What we do know is in Oklahoma split applying nitrogen allows you to take weather into account and the N-Rich strip pays dividends.

There are several fact sheets available on top-dressing N and the application of N-Rich strips.  Contact your local Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service county educator to get a copy and see if they have a GreenSeeker sensor on hand.

DAP vs MAP, Source may matter!

Historically the two primary sources of phosphorus have had different homes in Oklahoma. In general terms MAP (11-52-0) sales was focused in Panhandle and  south west, while DAP (18-46-0) dominated the central plains.  Now I see the availability of MAP is increasing in central Oklahoma. For many this is great, with MAP more P can be applied with less material. which can over all reduce the cost per acre. There is a significant amount of good research that documents that source of phosphorus seldom matters. However this said, there is a fairly large subset of the area that needs to watch what they buy and where they apply it.

If you are operating under optimum soil conditions the research shows time and time again source does not matter especially for a starter.  In a recent study just completed by OSU multiple sources (dry, liquid, ortho, poly ect ect) of P were evaluated.  Regardless of source there was no significant difference in yield.  With the exception of the low pH site. The reason DAP was so predominate in central Ok, soil acidity.  See an older blog on Banding P in acidic soils.


Figure 1. The cover of an extension brochure distributed in Oklahoma during the 1980s.

When DAP is applied, the soil solution pH surrounding the granule will be alkaline with a pH of 7.8-8.2. This is a two fold win on soil acidity aka aluminum (Al) toxicity.  The increase in pH around the prill reduces Al content and extends the life of P, and as the pH comes back down the P ties up Al and allows the plant to keep going. However, the initial pH around the MAP granule ranges from an acid pH of 3.5-4.2.  There is short term  pH change in the opposite direction of DAP, however the the Al right around the prill becomes more available and in theory ties up P even faster.

Below is a table showing the yield, relative to untreated check, of in-furrow DAP and MAP treatments in winter wheat.  The N401 location had a ph 6.1  while Perk (green) has a pH of 4.8.  At Perkins in the low pH, both forms of P significantly increased yeild, almost 20 bushel on the average.  DAP however was 5 bushel per acre better than MAP. At the N40 site the yield difference between the two sources was 1 bushel.


Relative yield winter wheat grain yield MAP and DAP both applied at equal rates of P (32 lbs P2O5 ac) when compared to a untreated check.

In general it can be said that in acid soils DAP will out preform MAP while in calcareous high pH soils MAP can out preform DAP. So regarding the earlier statement about the traditional sales area of MAP or DAP if you look at the soil pH of samples went into the Oklahoma State University Soil, Water, and Forage Analytical lab the distribution makes since.

State pH

Average soil pH of samples sent into OSU soil water forage analytical lab by county.

In the end game price point and accessibility drives the system.  In soils with adequate soil pH levels, from about 5.7 to around 7.0, get the source which is cheapest per lbs of nutrient delivered and easiest to work with. But if you are banding phosphorus in row with your wheat crop because you have soil acidity, DAP should be your primary source.

Wheat Disease Update – 14 May 2016

Wheat Disease Update – 14 May 2016

Bob Hunger, Extension Wheat Pathologist

Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology – 127 Noble Research Center – Oklahoma State University – Stillwater, OK

405-744-9958 (work) – bob.hunger@okstate.edu

This past week in addition to being around Stillwater, I attended field days in Canadian County (just west of Oklahoma City), Kay County (north of Ponca City), Kingfisher County (northwest of Oklahoma City) and Major County (west of Enid).  Wheat I examined ranged from milk to medium dough.  Some active stripe rust (producing spores) was still present in Major County, but only at low levels.  Leaf rust is prevalent around Stillwater, with low levels of leaf rust found in Kay and Major Counties.

Symptoms of barley yellow dwarf (BYD) also were observed at all locations. As previously indicated, I observed only discolored (yellow to reddish-purple) flag leaves and no stunting indicating infection of BYDV by aphids occurred in the spring.  One observation of note is that often with BYD the flag leaf will be discolored but leaves below the flag remain green as in the photo below.  This is indeed BYD.


BYD flag leaf

Wheat tiller showing flag leaf with BYD symptoms but lower leaf green


The Diagnostic lab also has continued to receive samples testing positive for Wheat streak mosaic virus and/or High plains virus.  These samples have been from northern, northwestern and the panhandle regions of Oklahoma.  For more information, see Fact Sheet EPP-7328 (Wheat Streak Mosaic, High Plains Disease, and Triticum Mosaic:  Three Virus Diseases of Wheat in Oklahoma) at http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-8987/EPP-7328.pdf

Finally, another disease that is making an appearance in Oklahoma this year is take-all.  I have not observed take-all in Oklahoma now for many years; in fact, the last time we received a number of samples of take-all was back in the early 2000s.  Take-all is favored by moist conditions and a neutral to alkaline soil pH.  Abundant moisture starting a year ago and in areas of Oklahoma again this year have likely provided conditions favorable for this disease in a few areas.  Take-all will first show as white plants in low-lying, wet areas after a period of hot days.  I don’t think this will be a significant disease in Oklahoma this year, but wanted to bring it to your attention.




take all

Darkened crown and roots due to take-all

Reports/excerpts of reports from other states:

Colorado:  Dr. Kirk Broders (Plant Pathologist); Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO; May 11, 2016:  “There has been good precipitation around the state this spring which has led to a good wheat crop, but also provides the potential for more foliar diseases than we usually see. Most of the wheat in the southeast has already headed out and there are low levels of stripe rust present, but likely will not impact yield especially where the wheat is further along. Wheat in the rest of the state ranges from booting to heading (Feekes 10 – 10.1). It is at this point that the flag leaf will also become fully emerged, and it will be important to ensure the flag leaf is protected in order to protect yield. I have received reports of stripe rust from multiple locations in eastern Colorado from Prowers County in the southeast and further north in Cheyenne, Kit Carson, Yuma, Washington and Arapahoe counties. Scott Haley mentioned he saw bacterial streak in the northeast part of Colorado and I have also received a couple reports and confirmed one report of Stagonosopora blotch on wheat in Washington County. Both reports were from wheat planted after a previous wheat crop. There were several reports of Stagonospora blotch in the state last year likely due to the significant amount of precipitation. This fungus is capable of surviving on wheat stubble and then infecting the successive crop given ample rainfall. Both Stagonospora blotch and stripe rust remain sporadically distributed and at low levels in most regions in the state, but with more predicted rain in the forecast growers may want to consider applying a fungicide once the flag leaf is fully emerged in order to ensure it is protected and the head is able to yield to potential. Certainly, they should take into consideration whether there is any foliar disease currently in the field or in their region, the potential yield of the crop and the cost of the fungicide to be applied, as well as the probability of cool, rainy weather in the forecast.”


Wisconsin:  Dr. Damon Smith (Ast Prof – Field Crops Pathology); University of Wisconsin-Madison; May 11, 2016:  “It was only a matter of time….  Today we confirmed the first observations of stripe rust in Wisconsin for 2016. Brian Mueller, Graduate Research Assistant in the Field Crops Pathology Lab at the University of Wisconsin-Madison found active stripe rust pustules in winter wheat in both southern and south central Wisconsin. In southern Wisconsin stripe rust was found in the Wisconsin Winter Wheat variety trial located in Sharon, Wisconsin. Stripe rust was at low incidence and severity on emerging flag leaves with some lesions manifesting as chlorotic flecks and not yet active. We speculate that the epidemic initiated recently. With the humid and rainy weather over the past several days, conditions have been ripe for symptom development.  The second stripe rust confirmation was at the Arlington Agricultural Research Station in an integrated management trial for stripe rust. Again, incidence and severity were low on emerging leaves, therefore, we speculate that the epidemic has recently initiated. We have been actively looking for stripe rust as there have been numerous reports of epidemics in winter wheat in states to our south and west. Given the recent weather patterns we will likely see more stripe rust show up in the state.  I suspect we will start to see fungicide sprayers active in wheat fields in the state given the fact that the epidemic onset is coinciding with the emergence of flag leaves. We will continue to monitor the situation carefully.”